Presenting the preliminary findings from an investigation conducted in June and July, the UN rights office described "a picture of widespread and systematic use of excessive force and arbitrary detentions against demonstrators in Venezuela." The UN also said security forces and pro-government groups were responsible for at least 73 protester deaths.
"Witness accounts suggest that security forces, mainly the National Guard, the National Police and local police forces, have systematically used disproportionate force to instill fear, crush dissent and to prevent demonstrators from assembling, rallying and reaching public institutions to present petitions," the rights office said in a statement.
"Government authorities have rarely condemned such incidents," it stressed.
Venezuela, which is suffering from an acute economic crisis marked by shortages of basic goods, has experienced four months of street demonstrations against President Nicolas Maduro that have left 125 people dead.
After receiving no response to repeated requests for access to Venezuela to investigate the situation in the country, UN rights chief Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein deployed a team of human rights officers to monitor the country remotely.
The investigators conducted 135 interviews between June 6 and July 31 with victims and their families, witnesses, civil society organizations, journalists, lawyers and doctors, among others.
"Since the wave of demonstrations began in April, there has been a clear pattern of excessive force used against protesters," Zeid said in the statement.
"Several thousand people have been arbitrarily detained, many reportedly subjected to ill-treatment and even torture, while several hundred have been brought before military rather than civilian courts," he said, stressing that "these patterns show no signs of abating."
According to the preliminary findings, security forces were allegedly responsible for at least 46 of the protester deaths, while pro-government armed groups were behind 27.
It remained unclear who was behind the remaining deaths, the rights office said.
At the same time, nearly 2,000 people have been injured, while more than 5,050 people have been arbitrarily arrested, with over 1,000 reportedly still in detention, it said.
The rights office also decried "credible reports of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment by security forces of such detainees, amounting in several cases to torture," saying tactics included "electric shocks, beatings ... suffocation with gas, and threats of killings, and in some cases threats of sexual violence."
Zeid warned that "these violations have occurred amid the breakdown of the rule of law in Venezuela, with constant attacks by the government against the National Assembly and the Attorney-General’s Office."
"The responsibility for the human rights violations we are recording lies at the highest levels of government," he said.