Phan Anh Nhung, 39, is the daughter of a former prostitute and a Vietnam War-era U.S. GI. Years ago, she was nearly resettled in the U.S. But consulate officers discovered she was cooperating with scam artists hoping to pawn off a bogus Vietnamese family as her relatives so they too could emigrate.
Credit: Patrick Winn

  • Vo Van Dang, 40, is the son of a Vietnam War-era U.S. GI and a former prostitute. Tormented as a "child of the enemy" throughout his upbringing, Dang spent his early years in a communist labor camp. He insists he is not Vietnamese and hopes to acquire an obscure American visa for war orphans.
    Credit: Patrick Winn
  • Phan Anh Nhung, 39, is the daughter of a former prostitute and a Vietnam War-era U.S. GI. Years ago, she was nearly resettled in the U.S. But consulate officers discovered she was cooperating with scam artists hoping to pawn off a bogus Vietnamese family as her relatives so they too could emigrate.
    Credit: Patrick Winn
  • Nguyen Thi Phan, born in 1968, cradles her two children outside their Ho Chi Minh City slum house. Children of U.S. GIs in Vietnam are typically poorer than average and considered foreign by Vietnamese. Phan said she has been denied low-wage jobs by bosses who believe her dark skin appears unclean.
    Credit: Patrick Winn
  • Cao Thi My Kieu, born in 1967, sobs inside her $40-per-month tin-roof shanty. "I am so disappointed in my life," said Kieu, who shares her a single room with her husband and three children. She works sporadically as a housekeeper for $1.50 a day.
    Credit: Patrick Winn
  • Vo Van Dang with his wife and three boys inside their small home, which is shared by 20 others. Dang, the son of a U.S. GI, insists they are an American family though none speak English and none have ever set foot outside Vietnam.
    Credit: Patrick Winn
  • Vo Van Dang, his wife and youngest son prepare fish stew outside their rented room. Having grown up partially inside a communist labor camp, Dang went on to become a street vendor, construction worker and cook.
    Credit: Patrick Winn
  • Vo Van Dang's mother, seen here in an undated photo, birthed two children by black U.S. GIs during the Vietnam War. They were forced into a labor camp after communist victory and later escaped to Ho Chi Minh City.
    Credit: Patrick Winn
  • Vo Van Dang and his wife, Dinh Thi Thu Trang, as a young couple in Ho Chi Minh City. She has faced derision for marrying a dark-skinned man, she said. They now have three children.
    Credit: Patrick Winn

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