Each year millions of birds fly the skies over the Mediterranean Sea. They migrate from Europe to Africa and the Middle East. It's a journey fraught with peril — severe weather, predation, fatigue, and degraded habitats can all keep a bird from completing its trip. And when many of these birds land in Cyprus to rest and refuel, they can fly straight into another danger: Illegal bird trapping. In a parking lot in southeastern Cyprus, you can hear the song of the blackcap, but the small warblers themselves are nowhere to be seen. Their calls hurtle out of a tiny speaker playing from a tape player. "This is a tape player, but we've got CD players, we've got it on mp3s," says Andreas Pitsillides, who oversees crime operations at the Dhekelia military base on Cyprus' southeastern coast. He says the recordings were seized from poachers, who play them to lure the birds into nets, more than a hundred at a time. "The poachers," Pitsillides says, "remove the birds, they kill it, they remove the feathers, and then they sell them by the dozen." Pitsillides says a dozen blackcaps went for more than $80 last year. They're sold to restaurants, boiled, and eaten as a delicacy called ambelopoulia. Pitsillides and his team have confiscated a heap of trapping equipment, including giant nets. Just last year, they seized 600 nets, 13 shotguns, and more than two miles of loudspeaker cables. A few miles away, police officer Panikos Mihael escorts me to a trapping site, where acacia trees have been planted to attract blackcaps. Mihael is usually on traffic duty. But when birds are migrating, he's part of an all-hands-on-deck anti-poaching detail. And Mihael's not the sort of guy to mess with – he's huge, and it's all muscle. Mihael and his team hike out here in the middle of the night to sneak up on the poachers. "They may see us either through spotters or if we make some noise because usually they work in groups," Mihael says. He says some poachers stand their ground. Others take off through the tangle of acacia trees. He adds that there's no typical poacher. He's seen men, women, kids, even the elderly. Forty-three people were arrested last year, each facing up to three years in jail and a $100,000 fine, yet the problem persists. "Whatever you do, it's never enough. I don't think it's a problem that can be solved very easily," Mihael says. Not long ago, it looked like the problem was being solved. Back in the 1990s, an estimated 10 million birds were trapped and killed here each year, according to the NGO Birdlife Cyprus. But that number fell to around one million a year in the early 2000s. That's when Cyprus was trying to join the European Union, which bans bird trapping. "There was a real political pressure, and that's where we saw the real sea change," says Martin Hellicar, campaigns manager for Birdlife Cyprus. He says the pressure didn't last. "Cyprus is now in the European Union, so there's been a relaxation." Hellicar estimates catch numbers climbed back to more than two million birds in 2010, and he says that so far the EU hasn't taken any concrete action to stop the hunt. The nets aren't the only culprit. Some poachers use another illegal tool called limesticks – twigs coated with sticky sap. "If a bird gets caught on a limestick, it struggles, it often ends up hanging upside down, and the only relief comes when the trapper comes along and slits its throat," Hellicar says. But others see limesticks as an important part of Cypriot culture. "This tradition from my father and grandfather," says Tavro Nufidu runs a shooting club in southeastern Cyprus. He says the limestick tradition dates back centuries, and he's teaching his four boys how to hunt with limesticks, which he says helps keep them off the streets. Nufidu figures he catches between 500 and 600 blackcaps in a season. Limestick supporters also dispute charges that it's cruel. "The bird doesn't stay on the limestick for hours and suffer — not more than three, four minutes," says Antonis Kakoulis, president of the Cyprus Hunting Federation. "The trapper is there to catch it immediately." Kakoulis also dismisses concerns that limesticks kill millions of birds a year. "When we hear this, we laugh." Kakoulis does condemn blackcap netting. But he says people should be allowed to use a few dozen limesticks on their own property. However, conservationists argue against both methods. They also worry that it's not just blackcaps that are dying. More than 100 types of birds get caught in the traps; sometimes non-blackcaps can amount to two thirds of the catch. And while the overall blackcap population is still healthy, some of the other casualties are members of endangered species. That's part of the reason delegates to a recent conference on illegal bird killing held in Cyprus voted to support a zero-tolerance approach. Boris Barov, a conservation manager with Birdlife Europe, says that means a wider crackdown. "The most important thing they should do is to actually close down all those restaurants which serve illegally trapped birds and their owners fined," Barov says. "That will be the only way to reduce the demand." That's a tall order. Enforcement of anti-poaching laws can get people upset. It's the Mediterranean mentality, says Pantelis Hadjigerou, Cyprus's Director of Game and Fauna. The guy who used to have this position was killed by a bomb in 1999. So Hadjigerou proceeds cautiously. Still, he says his agency is very active. "We have taken in the last few years more than a thousand cases to court," Hadjigerou says. And yet, untold numbers of birds continue to die in Cyprus every year. It isn't migration season now, so the trees and fields of southeastern Cyprus are mostly quiet. But what happens with bird trapping here might determine whether that silence becomes permanent.
  • A male Blackcap. (Photo: Xenus/Wikipedia)

  • Blackcap in Cyprus (Photo: József Szabó)

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