Health authorities around the world are again working to counter new surges of the coronavirus as temperatures begin to drop in the Northern Hemisphere, and people return to spending more time indoors.

Unlike the spring, there are now concerns over “pandemic fatigue” as a growing number of regions return to lockdown restrictions including England where three temporary hospitals in the north have been alerted to prepare for patients with COVID-19.

In Belgium, one of the European countries hit hardest by the coronavirus, officials on Monday warned that as many as 10,000 people could be infected every day by the end of the week.

Also in Europe, France Prime Minister Jean Castex warned that further restrictions may be needed.

“Nothing can be ruled out,” to face COVID-19, Castex said on Monday as nine of France’s big cities, including Paris, have been placed under maximum virus alert.

Among the world's worst-hit countries, the death toll surpassed 150,000 in Brazil and 109,000 COVID-19 fatalities in India; with the United States still in the unenviable lead with over 214,00 deaths.

Related discussion: What's driving the latest coronavirus surges?

After months of the pandemic, where do we stand on testing, diagnostics and a safe and effective vaccine?

As part of our regular series of conversations, The World's Elana Gordon moderated a discussion with William Hanage, associate professor of epidemiology at Harvard University's T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

The conversation is presented jointly by The Forum at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

The Associated Press contributed to this post.

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