The newly elected Bulgarian Patriarch Neofit is seen during his enthronement at Alexander Nevsky cathedral in Sofia, Bulgaria on February 24, 2013. The new Bulgarian Orthodox Patriarch was chosen at the national church council on Sunday, February 24 for a first time since 1971 between three candidates: Metropolitan Neophyte of Ruse, Metropolitan Galaktion of Stara Zagora and Metropolitan Gabriel of Lovech.The Bulgarian Patriarch Maxim, who led the Church since 1971, passed away on November 6, 2012, at the age of 98.
Bulgarian Church officials picked a new leader over the weekend. It should have been a solemn occasion. But the church is embroiled in scandal, even as the government is on the verge of collapse. From Sofia, Bulgaria, Matthew Brunwasser reports.
It was a proud moment for Bulgarians. In a special election, the Bulgarian Holy Synod had made a choice.
"For the first time in more than 600 years, not in tyranny and slavery, Bulgarian has freely chosen its own spiritual leader and holy autonomous patriarch," said a clearly emotional church spokesman, immediately after the vote.
So the grand spiritual pageantry in Bulgaria's Saint Alexander Nevski Cathedral — the gold robes and the choir — stoked national pride. But, the Bulgarian church hasn't been much of a moral role model for several generations.
The Bulgarian media is filled with images like a fuzzy hidden camera video of a bishop demanding payment for an interview. When the reporter protests, the bishops drops the price from $35,000 to $20,000.
But that kind of corruption is only the tip of the iceberg.
"The total lack of public scrutiny has resulted in this massive market for church property," says Philip Gounev from the Center for the Study of Democracy in Sofia.
He says the Bulgarian church is a mess. For starters, the church is the second biggest landowner in the country after the state. Secrecy and poor management has made it an easy target for organized crime groups.
The Holy Synod which governs the church is infested with men with files in the former state security police, meaning they informed on others and did the bidding of the Communist Party.
And the reason why the association with the former secret police is important is because the economic elite and criminal elite of Bulgaria is largely associated with the former secret police.
Theologian Ventzilsav Karavulchev says the situation is painful but not entirely shocking.
"Most of our hierarchy, people are on the top, our bishops, are not bad people, but not wise people, not well-educated people," says Karavulchev. "And for a small profit, are able to do big mistakes."
Karavulchev says the Communists intentionally recruited immoral and intellectually inferior people to staff the church — as well as other institutions. 11 of the 14 bishops who chose the new patriarch have been revealed as collaborators.
The church, for its part, is planning to canonize some martyrs of the Communist era. Thousands of priests were killed or imprisoned. But the church has never publicly addressed its support for the Communist regime.
Desislava Panayotova, with the Holy Synod's cultural department, says the current church officials who collaborated were working for the national interest, not that of the Communist Party.
"Most of them are decent and helpful to the development of church life," Panayotova says. "I think the repenting has taken place in their hearts and this is the most important for me."
But for many, this still doesn't repair the damage done by keeping silent for so long. Theologian Georgi Todorov says the church's failure to publicly atone for its sins makes the collaboration appear worse than it really was.
"They should have honestly have said it," says Todorov. "Something like two, three, four months after the fall of Communism, confessed it to the public, repented and said 'okay, we have done this political compromise. But this is, brothers, a political issue. Please don't overestimate it.'"
Monday is the new Patriarch's first day in office and expectations are high. But not too high, as His Holiness Patriarch Neofit of Bulgaria himself has a record as a collaborator in the files of the former State Security.