Hosni Mubarak, the fourth president of Egypt, was in power from 1981 to 2011, when he stepped down after weeks of protests against his rule and handed power over to the military. Before he was president of Egypt, he served as commander of Egypt's Air Force, and was the Egyptian Minister of Defense.
Here is a timeline of his life:
May 4, 1928: Mubarak was born in Kafr-el-Mesina, in the Monufia governate of Egypt.
1949: Mubarak graduates with a Bachelors degree from the Egyptian Military Academy.
March 1950: Mubarak becomes a pilot officer.
February 1959 — June 1961: Mubarak travels to the Soviet Union for further pilot training.
November 1967: Mubarak becomes the commander of the Air Force Academy. During his tenure, he doubles the number of pilots in the air force.
1972: Mubarak becomes Commander of the Air Force and Egyptian Deputy Minister of Defense
April 1975: Mubarak appointed vice president of Egypt by Anwar Sadat.
October 1981: Anwar Sadat is assasinated. Mubarak becomes president.
1981: In one of his first moves as president, Mubarak says Egypt will stick to the 1979 peace treaty with Israel, the first by any Arab nation with the Jewish state.
1995: Militants attempt to assassinate Mubarak as he visits Ethiopia.
2005: Mubarak allows the first ever multi-candidate presidential election, which he wins easily over 10 other candidates amid charges of voter fraud and intimidation.
2010: Parliamentary elections in Egypt are deplored as corrupt. The Muslim Brotherhood responds to these allegations by withdrawing all of its candidates, who ran as independents, from a second round of voting.
25 January 2011: Thousands of anti-government protesters clash with police in Cairo during a demonstration to protest Mubarak's rule. The day marks the start of the Arab spring in Egypt.
11 February 2011: After three weeks of massive protests against his rule, Mubarak resigns, and hands power to the military.
13 April 2011: Authorities detain Mubarak and his two sons in an investigation into corruption. Mubarak is ordered to stand trial on charges of corruption and conspiracy in the deadly shooting of protesters.
3 August 2011: Mubarak's trial opens in Cairo. From the defendant's cage, Mubarak denies all charges against him.
22 February 2012: Mubarak, who had rarely spoken during the trial, turns down his last chance to address the court during the defence's final arguments.
2 June 2012: the 84-year-old is sentenced to life in prison