Indigenous Crees lived in the northern Plains long before the US-Canada border divided the region. But bisected by the line and labeled “foreign” Indians in the US, Cree were denied basic necessities, work — and eventually, even the right to stay in the country.
This year marks 400 years since the first Africans were taken from Africa and sold as slaves in the English colonies. It was the largest migration in history: 12 million or more Africans forcibly moved to places across the Atlantic Ocean to be slaves. Today, all of those places are still dealing with the fallout.
The renewed debate about who is a "public charge" evokes a forgotten page in American history: The US immigration system has long excluded vulnerable individuals based on their economic status, sexual orientation and physical abilities.
During World War II, the US forcibly relocated and detained thousands of Japanese Latin Americans, but left them without legal entry documents. Today, their fight for redress and recognition continues.