Global Politics

Why Spain's Unemployed Are Heading For Germany

The number of unemployed people in Spain has surpassed 5 million, according to the government. That's about 23 percent overall — the highest rate since 1994. For the young, the jobless rate is nearly 50 percent. Now, a generation of desperate Spaniards is seeking work abroad. It isn't the first time poverty has driven Spaniards from home, but such exoduses have been of unskilled laborers in the past. This time, more of Spain's best and brightest are leaving.

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Munich's airport shuttle stopped on a recent morning to let off arriving passengers downtown. Among those getting off on the freezing sidewalk were Spaniards Jose Sandino and Juan Alberto Fuente.

Sandino and Fuente are thirty-something industrial engineers, from Malaga, in southern Spain. Each has more than a decade of experience under his belt. But Spain's economic crisis has left them jobless. And turned them into immigrants.

The two clean-cut, shivering men make their way to an information desk at Munich's main train station, and try out their beginner's German. After a long subway ride, and getting lost a couple of times on the street, Sandino and Fuente find their new temporary home. It's a giant youth hostel, filled mostly with young backpackers.

Their room is small and bare, with two wooden beds, a desk, a closet. It's hard to believe now, Sandino says, but not long ago his construction consulting firm back home was netting him six-figures. Then the housing sector collapsed and so did his business. Sitting on his bed, he says he can't believe that just this morning he was saying goodbye to his girlfriend and family.

"This move has been complicated, he said, "because my girlfriend is pregnant, and alone now. Our baby is due in July, then they'll come join me here, where we don't know anything or anyone."

Sandino does know one other person here, his traveling pal and bunkmate Juan Alberto Fuente. They met during an intensive German language course this Fall in Malaga, and decided to take the plunge together.

Fuente says he could have just gone on living indefinitely with his parents, knowing he'd be taken care of, but that was not his goal in life.

"If you send out tons of resumes and no one even calls you for an interview," he said, "you have to go out and find work. You can't just sit on your hands for years and years.

It's not about the money, he said, but about feeling useful.

Spain's near-23 percent unemployment rate is driving highly educated people like Fuente and Sandino abroad by the tens of thousands. This year more people left Spain than moved there for the first time in more than a generation. And Germany's a principal destination. Here, unemployment is below 4%. But coming north is hardly a waltz through the edelweiss, says Cristina Rico, a long-time Spanish resident of Munich. The unprepared, she says, usually fail.

Having a tea in a Munich café, Rico said a lot of Spaniards heard about how German Chancellor Merkel called for workers to come last year, and misinterpreted it.

"Spaniards have a distorted idea of finding work in Germany," she said. "That it's easier than it is. I've seen people come here and turn around and go straight back home. They had diplomas but didn't speak English or German."

And thus they had no way to communicate.

Cristina said that over the last year she was bombarded with so many emails from unemployed Spaniards curious about Germany that she started a Facebook page, called Spaniards in Munich. Every day people log on with questions about jobs, housing, healthcare, German courses — and diplomas. In Germany, with its strong vocational schooling, even so-called unskilled jobs require a certificate of study. For example, Rico said, even to work in a pet-store you have to show you've been trained for it.

That's what's been frustrating 20 year old Spaniard Ana Abad for more than a year. Abad came to Munich from Madrid without first finishing her university studies in communications. Now, she said on a recent evening, she needed that diploma.

"I tried to find internships but it was impossible," she said. "So I took this babysitting and housecleaning job in order to have money for my German language studies. I hope to finish my communications degree via long-distance by June.
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And look for work here, she said.

Several Spaniards interviewed here said if you have a diploma and a decent level of German you can usually find a job quickly. Economist Marten Olsen, with the IESE business school in NY, said one reason is because hiring in Germany is less costly and risky than in Spain. He said the cost of hiring in Spain has risen 24 percent in recent years, because of wage and benefits increases. At the same time, he said, productivity has stayed nearly flat. In Germany, he said, it's been the opposite.

"Spanish workers have only become a little more productive but wage compensation has gone up a lot," he said in a video presentation from New York. "Germans a lot more productive than the Spanish ones and wage compensation has been only gone up only a little."

In other words, he said, it's become relatively cheaper to hire people in Germany than in Spain.

In the old days, Olsen said, Spain could have devalued its currency, the peseta, to stay competitive. That would help stem the exodus of workers in today's crisis. But with the euro, that option is out.

Juan Alberto Fuente, one of the engineers who'd just arrived from Malaga, said he wasn't optimistic about Spain's future. He said he saw something that shocked him on his way in from the Munich airport, and underscored the current difference between his home and here.

"The first thing I noticed was that there are tons of trucks on the German highways," he said. "In Spain there are virtually none."

Truck traffic is a major indicator of how productive your economy is, he said.

With young educated men like Fuente and Sandino leaving, there's a growing concern that Spain may be undergoing an authentic brain drain. The government has played that down. And Spaniards here in Germany said even if it is true, it's only temporary. Most said they'll go back to Spain better educated, with real-world experience and real money in their pockets.

But that's likely to be years from now.

  • arrivingmunich620.jpg

    Juan Alberto Fuente and Jose Sandino search for their new home - a youth hostel - in Munich, Germany. They've just arrived from Malaga, in southern Spain, in search of work. Both are experienced industrial engineers but Spain's economic crisis had them sitting on their hands. Their plan: take a few months to master the German language then start working. Germany's unemployment rate is under 4%. Spain's is at nearly 23%.

  • Juan-Alberto-Fuente-and-Jose-Sandino-from-Spain-arriving-in-Munich-Germany-Photo-Gerry-Hadden.jpg

    Juan Alberto Fuente and Jose Sandino from Spain arriving in Munich, Germany. (Photo: Gerry Hadden)

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