(Have you witnessed this kind of corruption yourself?) Unfortunately yes, during my last visit to Vietnam, the head of a maternity hospital openly admitted to having an agreement with an orphanage and an adoption agency where if he provided ten infants he would get an incubator in return. (Meaning babies who really didn't have parents?) Right, it's very easy to coerce women in Vietnam who are in a vulnerable position. (What is it that causes this situation specifically in Vietnam?) The problem is the amount of international adoption money that's coming through. Prospective adoption parents hire an adoption agency, usually based in the US and they hire staff within countries. The facilitators in these countries are the ones who negotiate agreements with the local adoption agencies and there's a known expectation that the funds provided to these orphanages is for finding children for adoption. (So is there not enough legislation to guide what they're doing?) Yes, that, but corruption is also well known. and with children, the need for oversight is not as needed or expected. I think the larger question also is what happens when these children become old enough to question whether their adoption was legal or ethical?